Genetic Terminology
Below you will find terms and their definitions. These terms will be used within the lessons. Please read
their definitions so that you may better understand what is being spoken about within each lesson.
Allele- one member of a pair or series of genes that occupies a specific position
on a specific chromosome

Chromosome- a threadlike linear strand of DNA and associated proteins in the
nucleus of an animal that carries the genes and functions in the transmission
of hereditary information

Dilution- an effect that causes a degree of lightening to the melanin of the coat
or skin pigmentation

Dominant- being an allele that produces the same phenotypic effect whether
inherited with a homozygous or heterozygous allele.

Eumelanin- a melanin pigmentation that is some shade of black or brown

Gene- a portion of a DNA molecule that serves as the basic unit of heredity,
controls the characteristic that the offspring will have by transmitting
information

Genotype- The combination of alleles located on homologous chromosomes
that determines a specific characteristic or trait.

Homozygous- relating to a cell that has two identical alleles for a particular trait
at corresponding positions on homologous chromosomes

Heterozygous- relating to a cell that has two different alleles at corresponding
positions on homologous chromosomes.

Loci- (plural) "locality", the position that a given gene occupies on a
chromosome.

Locus- (singular) "locality", the position that a given gene occupies on a
chromosome.

Phaeomelanin- a melanin pigmentation that is some shade of red, orange, gold
or yellow

Phenotype- The physical appearance of an organism as distinguished from its
genetic makeup.

Recessive- expressed only when the determining gene is in the homozygous
condition

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